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Beginning of Time and the End of Eternity ~ Calendar of Ancient Egypt

The Beginning of Time and the End of Eternity

In the Presence of the Nab ra Djar – Lord of the End

Found in books in the Par ‘Anakh – House of Life

The ascending and descending of the Pasadjat war – Great Ennead

Three houses, one each, R’a – Tomorrow, A’asir – Yesterday, Har – Today

Papyrus Cairo 86637 c. 1271 – 1163 BCE

The calendar of ancient Egypt is reconstructed using the latest research from calendars found inscribed in temples or written on papyrus.  Its festival days, good and combative days are found in several archaeological and literary sources. The calendar is calibrated with the Heliacal rising of spdt (Sirius) that establishes the opening of the year (wpt rnpt ) over the ancient Capital of mn nfr (Memphis) as it was traditionally established in the Early Dynastic period, c. 2773 BCE.

Archaeological Sources

Solar Temple of Nyuserre Ini, Abusir, c. 2500 BCE

Valley Temple of Sahure, Abusir c. 2465 – c. 2325 BCE

Contracts of Hapdjefa, Nomarch of Asyut, reign of Senusret I 1971 BCE to 1926 BCE, or 1920 BCE to 1875 BCE

El-Lahun (Kahun) Papyrus, 12th Dynasty, c. 1991 – 1782 BCE

Sesostris III Papyrus, 1828 BCE

Sixth Pylon built by Thutmose III, Precinct of Amun-Ra, Karnak, c. 1479 – 1425 BCE

Temple of Thutmose III to Osiris, Abydos, c. 1479 – 1425 BCE

Temple of Thutmose III to his mother (goddess Satis or Anuket c. 1479 – 1425 BCE

Temple of Thutmose III to Mut, Karnak, c. 1479 – 1425 BCE

Papyrus Sallier no. IV, 19th Dynasty, c. 1293 – 1185 BCE

Papyrus Cairo 86637 c. 1271 – 1163 BCE

Temple of Ramesses II in Abydos c. 1303 – 1213 BCE

Temple of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu, c. 1150 BCE

Thutmosis IV wall around Hatshepsut’s south Obelisk, Karnak c. 1401 – 1391 BCE or 1397 – 1388 BCE

British Museum Papyrus EA10474 verso – Calendar of Lucky and Unlucky Days, Third Intermediate Period, c. 1,080 – 525 BCE

Granite trough for seedlings, Dynasty 22 king at Koptos, c. 850 BCE

Papyrus Louvre N 3176, c. 332 – 30 BCE

Temple to Hathor, Dandara c. 305 – 100 CE

Temple to Horus of Behdet, Edfu c. 142 – 57 BCE

Temple to Sobek and Horus the Elder, Kom Ombo c. 180–47 BCE

Papyrus Jumilhac, c. 100 BCE

Literary Sources

Dawson, W. (1926). Some Observations on the Egyptian Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 12(3/4), 260-264. doi:10.2307/3854395

El-Sabban, S. (1770). Temple Festival Calendars of Ancient Egypt. Liverpool University Press.

Gautschy, R. (2011). Der Stern Sirius im Alten Ägypten. Zeitschrift Für Ägyptische Sprache Und Altertumskunde, 138 (2), 116–131.

Helck, W. (1961). Urkunden der 18. Dynastie: übersetzung zu den Heften 17-22. Akademie-Verlag.

Sethe, K. H. (1908). Die altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte. Nach den Papierabdrücken und Photographien des Berliner Museums neu herausgegeben und erläutert von Kurt Sethe. J. C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung.