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Dynasty 0 – Lower Egypt – Saka’

Attested ruler of Dynasty ‘0’ of Lower Egypt, Naqada IIIb-c1, c. 3200-3150 b.c.e. The only archaeological evidence is His listing from the Palermo Stone fragment of possible 5th dynasty construction. Common name in Egyptology are ‘Hsekiu’ or ‘Seka.’


Only a partial inscription remains of the preceding ruler of lower Egypt, which in addition to the determinative of the seated ruler with the flail and red crown is a partial read on what could be the barrel and the quail chick beneath.

Hieroglyphic Analysis


Palermo Stone c. Fifth Dynasty (2392–2283 b.c.e.)

Saka’s hieroglyphs are etched on a slab of stone resembling black basalt. Three single hieroglyphs written in the old kingdom style, in a single column, right-left, top-bottom.

folded cloth

The folded cloth is often used as one of the basic phonemes of the language.


Upraised arms holds a multitude of meanings, and is used to spell a variety of words from ‘spirit’ to ‘bull.’


Seated king holding the flail and wearing the crown of Lower Egypt.


Morphological Analysis

The exact meaning of Saka’ is uncertain, but through further morphological analysis and examination of homophones, more understanding in the meaning of His name is possibly discerned.

v. cultivate, plough

v. ploughing


n. plow ox


n. crops


This reveals a wealth of information on the possible meaning of the Lower Egyptian bitya Saka’. All hieroglyphic phrases that contain the bitya‘s name refer to cultivating and crops. This idea is the foundation of the establishment of the rulership of ancient Egypt. The pharaoh was primarily connected with the inundation and was responsible for causing the nutrient rich silt to fertilize the flood plains where the crops were planted as displayed on the Narmer palette.

Published inRoyal Annals of Ancient Egypt

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