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Royal Annals of Ancient Egypt

Seti and Ramesses offering to the Pharaohs

Ancient Egyptian Pharaonic rulership was a foundation of ancient Egyptian culture. His funerary religion became distributed throughout the two lands, and provided a binding guide by which all divine religions came forth. The Royal Annals Project seeks to reconstruct the most complete royal record of ancient Egyptian rulers from its earliest mythical and archaeological records. With this compendium of knowledge, the project can then work to understand how this unique system of ruling shaped ancient Egyptian culture.

Sources

  • Palermo stone
  • Turin Royal Canon
  • Manetho’s Aegyptiaca
  • Abydos King List
  • Karnak Tablet
  • South Saqqara Stone
  • Saqqara Tablet
  • Min Statues at Coptos
  • Tomb U-j at Abydos
  • Tehenw Palette
  • Metropolitan Museum Palette
  • Hunters Palette
  • Umm el-Qa’ab Tombs at Abydos

Rak Natjarw – Time of deities

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Natjarw war – Great Deities

PataH – Ptah

R’a – Ra / Re

Agathodaemon

Gabab ‘AHa’atyw r’a  – Geb warrior of Ra

A’asir – Osiris

Satash – Seth

Har Natjarw – Horus deities – 300 year reign

DjaHwtya – Thoth – 7,726 year reign

ma”aat – Ma’at – one hundred year reign

Har sa’a A’asat – Horus, son of Isis

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Natjarw Sharar – Lesser Deities

Mars

Inapw – Anubis

Heracles

Apollo

Ammon

Tutu

Zosos

Jupiter

3 Generations of Djara’atyw – Ancestors

30 Rulers in Man Nafar – Memphis reigning 1,790 years

Shamasw Har – Followers of Horus

10 Rulers in Thinis reigning 350 years

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Predynastic Period

before 3,180 BCE

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MaHw – Lower Egypt

srx (serekh) of Hr HDw - Hedju Hor

Har Hadjw – Hedju Hor

Hr ny heroglyphs

Har naya – ny Hor

Hor Hat hieroglyphs

Har Ha’atya – Hor Hat

seka hieroglyphs

Saka’a – Seka

Khayu hieroglyphs

Kha’iw – Khayu

Tiu hieroglyphs

Tiw – Tiu / Teyew

tjesh hieroglyphs

Tjash – Thesh / Tjesh

Na saka’ – Neheb

Wazner hieroglyphs

Wa’adj-bw – Wazner

Mekh hieroglyphs

Maç – Mekh

double falcon hieroglyphs

Har-wya – Double Falcon

Wash hieroglyphs

Wa’ah – Wash

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Dynasty 00 – Naqada IIIa

Sham’aw – Upper Egypt

gazelle hieroglyphs

GaHas -Gazelle

Finger Snail

Fish

Har pa – Pe-Hor / Elephant

Stork

Canine

Bull

Scorpion I hieroglyphs

Scorpion I of Thinis

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Dynasty 0 – Naqada IIIb-cI

3,170 – 3,150 BCE

SmAw - Upper Egypt hieroglyphs

Shama’w – Upper Egypt

Horus crocodile hieroglyphs

Har MasaH – Shanadyw – Horus Crocodile

Iry Hor hieroglyphs

Har ra – Iry Hor

Horus Ka

Har Ka’a – Horus Ka

Scorpion II hieroglyphs

Har waH’a nakhanya – Scorpion II of Hierakonpolis

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Early Dynastic Period
3,150 – 2,686 BCE

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Dynasty 1

3,150 – 2,890 b.c.e.

Mani Narmar – Menes Narmer

Tati Har ‘aHa’a – Hor aha

Iti Djar – Djer

It(er)a Djat – Djet

Maryat Nat – Meritneith

Imty Dan – Den

Maryabiya Anadjib – Anedjib

Samarkhat – Semerkhet

Qabah Qa’a – Qa’a

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Dynasty 2

2,890 – 2,686 BCE

Hotepsekhemwy

Nebnefer Raneb

Netjeren Ninetjer

Wadjnes Weneg

Sened

Perenma’at Sekhemib/Peribsen

Nebwyhotepimef Khasekhemwy

Sendji

Netjerka

Neferkara

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Old Kingdom

2,686 – 2,170 BCE

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Dynasty 3

2,686 – 2,613 BCE

Nebka Sanakht
2,686 – 2,668 BCE

Netjerikhet Djoser
2,668 – 2,649 BCE

Sekhemkhet
2,649 – 2,643 BCE

Khaba
2,643 – 2,637 BCE

Huni
2,637 – 2,613 BCE

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Dynasty 4

2,613 – 2,498 BCE

Nebma’at Senefru
2,613 – 2,589 BCE

Medjedu Khufu (Khnumkhufwy)
2,589 – 2,566 BCE

Kheperi Djedefra
2,566 – 2,558 BCE

Userib Khaefra
2,558 – 2,532 BCE

Kakhau Menkaura
2,532 – 2,504 BCE

Shepseskaf
2,504 – 2,500 BCE

Khentkawes I
2,500 – 2,498 BCE

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Dynasty 5

2,498 – 2,345 BCE

Irma’at Userkaf
2,498 – 2,491 BCE

Nebkhau Sahura
2,491 – 2,477 BCE

Userkhau Neferirkara Kakai
2,477 – 2,467 BCE

Shepseskara Ini
2,467 – 2,460 BCE

Khentkawes II
c. 2,467 – 2,451(?) BCE

Neferkhau Neferefra
2,454 – 2,451 BCE

Setibtawy Niuserra Ini
2,451 – 2,427 BCE

Menkauhor Kaiu
2,423 – 2,415 BCE

Djedkara Isesi
2,415 – 2,383 BCE

Wadjtawy Unas
2,383 – 2,350 BCE

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Dynasty 6

2,350 – 2,170 BCE

Sehoteptawy Teti
2,350 – 2,338 BCE

Merytawy Neferdjaheru Meryra Pepi I
2,338 – 2,301 BCE

Ankhkhau Antyemsaf Merenra
2,283 – 2,278 BCE

Netjerkhau Neferkara Pepi II
2,278 – 2,184 BCE

Nitocris

Merenre II

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First Intermediate Period

2,181 – 2,040 BCE

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Dynasties 7 & 8

2,181 – 2,160 BCE

  • Wadjkara
  • Qakara Iby
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Dynasties 9 & 10

2,160 – 2,040 BCE

  • Meryibra Khety
  • Wahkara Khety
  • Merykara
  • Kaneferra
  • Nebkaura Akhtoy
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Middle Kingdom

2,034 – 1,782 BCE

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Dynasty 11

(Theban)

2,134 – 1,191 BCE

Sehertawy Intef I
2,134 – 2,117 BCE

Wahankh Intef II
2,117 – 2,069 BCE

Nakhtnebtepnefer Intef III
2,069 – 2,060 BCE

Sankhibtawy Nebhedjet Sematawy Nebhepetra Montuhotep I
2,060 – 2,010 BCE

Sankhtawef Sankhkara Montuhotep II
2,010 – 1,998 BCE

Nebtawyra Montuhotep III
1,997 – 1,991 BCE

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Dynasty 12

1,991 – 1,782 BCE

Wehemmesut Sehotepibra Amenemhat I
1,991 – 1,962 BCE

Ankhmesut Kheperkara Senwosret I
1,971 – 1,926 BCE

Hekaenma’at Nubkaura Amenemhat II
1,929 – 1,895 BCE

Seshemutawy Khakheperra Senwosret II
1,897 – 1,878 BCE

Netjerkheperu Khakaura Senwosret III
1,878 – 1,841 BCE

A’abau Nymaatra Amenemhat III
1,842 – 1,797 BCE

Kheperkheperu Maakherura Amenemhat IV
1,798 – 1,786 BCE

Sobekkara Merytra Sobekneferura Sobeknefru (female)
1,785 – 1,782 BCE

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Second Intermediate Period

1,782 – 1,570 BCE

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Dynasty 13

1,782 – 1,650 b.c.e.

Khutawyra Wegaf
1,782 – 1,650 BCE

Sankhibra Ameny Intef IV Amenemhat V
? – 1,760 BCE

Auyibra Hor
c.1,760 BCE

Sekhemra-Khutawy Sobekhotep II Amenemhat VI
c.1,750 BCE

Userkara Khendjer
c. 1,747 BCE

Sekhemra Sewadjtawy Sobekhotep III
c. 1,745 BCE

Khasekhemra Neferhotep I
1,741 – 1,730 BCE

Khaneferra Sobekhotep IV
1,730 – 1,720 BCE

Merneferra Ay
c. 1,720 BCE

Sekhemra Sankhtawy Neferhotep II

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Dynasty 14
c. 1,720 BCE

Aasehra Nehesy

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Dynasty 15
Hyksos (Haka’w na kha’asatw)
1,663 – 1,555 BCE

Maaibra Sheshi

Meruserra Yakubher

Sawoserenra Khyan

Aawoserra Apepi I

Aaqenenra Apepi II

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Dynasty 16

1,663 – 1,555 BCE

Anather

Yakobaam

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Dynasty 17

1,663 – 1,570 BCE

Sekhemra Shedtawy Sobekemsaf II

Nubkheperra Intef VII

Senakhtenra Ta’o
c.1,633 BCE

Seqenenra Ta’o II
c. 1574 BCE

Wadjkheperra Kamose
1,573 – 1,570 BCE

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New Kingdom

1,570 – 1,070 BCE

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Dynasty 18

1,570 – 1,293 BCE

Nebpehtyra Ahmose I
1,570 – 1,546 BCE

Djoserkara Amenhotep I
1,551 – 1,524 BCE

Aakheperkara Djehutymose I
1,524 – 1,518 BCE

Aakheperenra Heqaiunu Djehutymose II
1,518 – 1,504 BCE

Maatkara Hatshepsut
1,498 – 1,483 BCE

Menkheperra Djehutymose III
1,504 – 1,450 BCE

Aakheperura Amenhotep II
1,453 – 1,419 BCE

Menkheperura Djehutymose IV
1,419 – 1,386 BCE

Nebmaatra Heqawaset Amenhotep III
1,386 – 1,349 BCE

Neferkheperura Waenra Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten)
1,350 BCE

Ankhkheperura Nefernefruaten Merywaenra Smenkhkhara
1,336 – 1,334 BCE

Nebkheperura Heqaiunushema Tutankhamen
1,334 – 1,325 BCE

Kheperkheperura It-Netjer Ay
1,325 – 1,321 BCE

Djoserkheperura Setepenra Meryamun Heremheb
1,321 – 1,293 BCE

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Dynasty 19

1,293 – 1,185 BCE

Menpehtyra Rameses I
1,293 – 1,291 BCE

Menmaatra Meryenptah Sety I
1,291 – 1,278 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenra Meryamun Rameses II
1,279 – 1,212 BCE

Bauenra Merynetjeru Hotephermaat Merenptah
1,212 – 1,202 BCE

Menmira Setepenra Heqawaset Amenmesses
1,202 – 1,199 BCE

Userkheperura Setepenra Merenptah Sety II
1,199 – 1,193 BCE

Sekhaenra Akhenra Setepenra Merenptah Siptah
1,193 – 1,187 BCE

Satra Meryamun Setepenmut Twosret

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Dynasty 20

1,185 – 1,070 BCE

Userkhaura Meryamun Setepenra Mereramunra Setnakht
1,185 – 1,182 BCE

Usermaatra Meryamun Heqaiunu Rameses III
1,182 – 1,151 BCE

Heqamaatra Setepenamun Heqama’at Meryamun Rameses IV
1,151 – 1,145 BCE

Usermaatra Sekheperenra Amenhirkhopeshef Meryamun Rameses V
1,145 – 1,141 BCE

Nebmaatra Meryamun Amenhirkhopeshef Netjerheqa Rameses VI
1,141 – 1,133 BCE

Usermaatra Meryamun Setepenra Itamun Netjerheqa Rameses VII
1,133 – 1,126 BCE

Usermaatra Akhenamun Sethirkhopeshef Meryamun Rameses VIII
1,133 – 1,126 BCE

Neferkara Setepenra Khaemwaset Mereramun Rameses IX
1,126 – 1,108 BCE

Khepermaatra Setepenra Amenhirkhopeshef Meryamun Rameses X
1,108 – 1,098 BCE

Menmaatra Setepenptah Khaemwaset Mereramun Netjerheqa Rameses XI
1,098 – 1,070 BCE

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Third Intermediate Period

1,080 – 525 BCE

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Hamw Natjar (High Priests) of A’aman (Amun) at Wa’asat (Thebes)
1,080 – 945 b.c.e.

Hemnetjertepyenamun Herihor Siamun
1,080 – 1,074 BCE

Piankh
1,074 – 1,070 BCE

Khakheperra Setepenamun Panedjem I
1,070 – 1,032 BCE

Maasaheretj
1,054 – 1,046 BCE

Hemnetjertepyenamun Menkheperra
1,045 – 992 BCE

Nesbanebdjed IKhakeperra Setepenamun Panedjem II
990 – 969 BCE

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Dynasty 21

at Tanis

1,069 – 945 BCE

Hedjkheperra Setepenra Meryamun Nesbanebjed II
1,069 – 1,043 BCE

Neferkara Amenemnisut
1,043 – 1,039 BCE

Akheperra Setepenra Pasebakhaenniut I – Psusennes I
1,039 – 991 BCE

Usermaatra Meryamun Setepenamun Amenemope
993 – 984 BCE

Aakheperra Setepenra Osorkon the Elder
984 – 978 BCE

Netjerkheperra Setepenamun Meryamun Siamun
978 – 959 BCE

Tyetkheperura Setepenra Meryamun Pasebakhaenniut II
959 – 945 BCE

Hedjkheperra Setepenamun Meryamun Herusaaset
870 – 860 BCE

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Dynasty 22

at Wa’asat, (Thebes) Libyan or Par Ba’astat (Bubastis)

945 – 712 BCE

Hedjkheperra Setepenra Meryamun Sheshonk I
945 – 924 BCE

Sekhemkheperra Setepenra Meryamun Osorkon I
924 – 889 BCE

Heqakheperra Setepenra Meryamun Sheshonk II
c. 890 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenra Meryamun Takelot I
889 – 874 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenamun Meryamun Osorkon II
874 – 850 BCE

Hedjkheperra Setepenra Meryamun Sa-Aset Takelot II
850 – 825 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenra Meryamun Sa-Bast Sheshonk III
825 – 773 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenamun Meryamun Pami
773 – 767 BCE

Aakheperra Sheshonk V
767 – 730 BCE

Aakheperra Setepenamun Osorkon IV
730 – 715 BCE

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Dynasty 23

at Taramu (Leontopolis), Libyan Anarchy

818 – 712 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenamun Meryamun Padibast
818 – 793 BCE

Usermaatra Meryamun Sheshonk IV
793 – 787 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenamun Osorkon III
825 – 773 BCE

Usermaatra Takelot III
764 – 757 BCE

Usermaatra Setepenamun Rudamon
757 – 754 BCE

Usermaatra Meryamun-Sabast Iuput
754 – 715 BCE

Nemaaretj Nimlot
At Herakleopolis

Neferkara Peftjawybast
At Hermopolis

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Dynasty 24

at Sais

727 – 715 BCE

Shepsesra Tefnakht
727 – 720 BCE

Wahkara Bakenrenef
720 – 715 BCE

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Dynasty 25

Kushite

747 – 656 BCE

Userma’atra Seneferra Menkheperre Piye
747 – 716 BCE

Neferkara Wahibra Shabaka
716 – 702 BCE

Djedkara Menkheperra Shebitko
702 – 690 BCE

Nefertemkhura Taharqa
690 – 664 BCE

Bakara Tanutamen
664 – 656 BCE

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Dynasty 26
Saite
664 – 525 BCE

Wahibra Psamtik I
664 – 610 BCE

Wehemibra Nekau (Necho)
610 – 595 BCE

Neferibra Psamtik II
595 – 589 BCE

Haaibra Wahibre
589 – 570 BCE

Khnumibra Sa-Nit Ahmose II
570 – 526 BCE

Ankhkara Psamtik III
526 – 525 BCE

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Late Period

525 – 332 BCE

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Dynasty 27
First Persian Period

Mesutira Cambyses II
525 – 522 BCE

Setutra Darius I
521 – 486 BCE

Xerxes
485 – 465 BCE

Artaxerxes I
465 – 424 BCE

Darius II
423 – 405 BCE

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Dynasty 28

404 – 399 BCE

  • Amyrtaeus
    404 – 399 BCE

Dynasty 29
399 – 380 BCE

Baenra Merynetjeru Nafaarud I
399 – 393 BCE

Maatibra Hakor
393 – 380 BCE

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Dynasty 30
380 – 343 BCE

Kheperkara Nakhtnebef I
380 – 362 BCE

Irmaatenra Djedhor
362 – 360 BCE

Senedjemenra Setepenanhur Nakhtnebef II
360 – 343 BCE

Dynasty 31

Second Persian Period

343 – 332 BCE

Artaxerxes III
343 – 338 BCE

Arses
338 – 336 BCE

Darius III
336 – 332 BCE

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Graeco-Roman Period

332 – 30 BCE

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Macedonian Kings

332 – 305 BCE

Meryamun Setepenra Alexander III
332 – 323 BCE

Meryamun Setepenra Phillip Arrhidaeus
323 – 317 BCE

Haaibra Setepenamun Alexander IV
317 – 305 BCE

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Ptolemaic Dynasty
305 – 30 BCE

Meryamun Setepenra Ptolemy I
305 – 282 BCE

Userkaenra Meryamun Ptolemy II
285 – 246 BCE

Iwaenneterjwysenwy Sekhemankhra Setepenamun Ptolemy III
246 – 222 BCE

Iwaennetjerwymenkhwy Setepptah Userkara Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy IV
222 – 205 BCE

Iwaennetjerwymerwyitu Setepptah Userkara Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy V
205 – 180 BCE

Iwaennetjerwyper Setepenptahkhepera Irmaatenamunra Ptolemy VI
180 – 164, 163 – 145 BCE

Ptolemy VII
145 BCE

Iwaennetjerwy Meryptah Setepenptah Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy VIII
170 – 163, 145 – 116 BCE

Iwaennetjerwy Meryptah Setepenamun Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy IX
116 – 110, 109 – 107, 88 – 80 BCE

Iwaennetjertwy Meryptah Setepenptah Irmaasenenamun Ptolemy X
110 – 109, 107 – 88 BCE

Ptolemy XI
80 BCE

Iwaenpanetjernehem Setepptah Irmaat Ptolemy XII
80 – 58, 55 – 51 BCE

Berenike IV
58 – 55 BCE

Ptolemy (XIII)

Ptolemy (XIV)

Netjeret-merites Cleopatra VII (female)
51 – 30 BCE

Iwapanetjer entynehem Setepenptah Irma’atenra Sekhemankhamun Ptolemy Caesarion XV
36 – 30 BCE

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Roman Period

30 BCE – 313 CE

  • Hor-Tjema wer pehty hunu bener merut heqa heqau setep en Ptah Nenu it netjeru – Heqa heqau setep en Ptah – Autokrator – Kaisaros  divi filius  Augustus
    30 BCE – 14 CE
  • Hor-Tjemaa wer pehty hunu nefer bener merut heqa heqau setep en Ptah nenu it netjeru – Tyberys Caesar divi Augusti filius Augustus
    14 – 37 CE
  • Hor-Kanakht iakhw setut Ra Iah  – Autokrator heqa heqau mery Ptah Aset – Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Caligula
    37 – 41 CE
  • Hor-Kanakhat djad iakh shu (ma) A’khat Autokrator heqa heqau mery Aset Ptah – Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
    41 – 54 CE
  • Hor-Tjemaa hui khasut, wer nakhtu Baqet, heqa heqau, setep en Nenu merur – Heqa heqau setep en Ptah mery Aset – Autokrator Neron – Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus
    54 – 68 CE
  • Servius Galba Caesar Augustus
    68 – 69 CE
  • Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus
    69 CE
  • Hor-Hunu nefer bener merut – Autokrator Titos Kaisaros – Titus Caesar Vespasianus
    79 – 81 CE
  • Hor-Hunu nekhet itj em sekhemef – User renput Aa nakhtu – Hor sa Aset mery netjeru nebu – Dominitianos Sebastos Kaisaros
    81 – 96 CE
  • Marcus Cocceius Nerva netikhu
    96 – 98 CE
  • Autokrator Kaisaros Nerouas – Germanikos Dakikos ankh djet – Caesar Nerva Traianus
    98 – 117 CE
  • Hadrianos Kaisaros – Caesar Traianus Hadrianus
    117 – 138 CE
  • Hor-Nefer… Autokrator Kaisaros Titos Ailitos Adrianos – Antoninos netikhu ankh djet – Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius
    138 – 161 CE
  • Lucius Verus
    161 – 169 CE
  • Marcus Aurelius
    161- 180 CE
  • Commodus
    180 – 192 CE
  • Septimius Severus
    193 – 211 CE
  • Caracalla
    211 – 217 CE
  • Geta
    211 CE
  • Macrinus
    217 – 218 CE
  • Diadumenian
    218 CE
  • Philippus Arabus
    244 – 249 CE
  • Decius
    249 – 251 CE
  • Valerian
    253 – 260 CE
  • Maximian
    286 – 305 CE
  • Galerius
    305 – 311 CE
  • Maximinus Daia
    311 – 313 CE

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