These are some of the greatest rulers of ancient Egypt, for they are said to be of a time immemorial, when the Natjrw – the ancient Egyptian deities – walked among their ramatj – people of most ancient Egypt. Even the ancient people who set down this record in the Royal Annals of Old Kingdom Egypt knew of a more ancient time, for which they called iswt. There is no archaeological record that can corroborate this, but to the people of ancient Egypt, these were real rulers who lived thousands of years before the pharaoh who decreed this record etched in stone. These were the Natjrw iswt.
The New Kingdom Hieratic Turin Royal Canon Papyrus gives us a fragmented list of nTr.w rulers, with the first eleven lines of the first column missing. Manetho, a priest or head priest to Rع in iwnw (Heliopolis) under Ptolemy Soter and Ptolemaîos Philádelphos in the early to mid-3rd century BCE provides a corroboration in writings known as Aegyptiaca . He confirms the list of fragmented pharaohs, and provides the ruler immediately preceding line 12.
The First Dynasty of Natjrw begin with the Memphite Theology in which PataH (Ptah) of Man nafar (Memphis).
creates Rع , Natjr of the sun’s power.
The Turin Canon continues with :
Agathodaemon. This is an interesting term used by Manetho, for it takes several different forms across ancient Greece, Rome and Egypt. In Hellenistic Egypt, takes on the form of a protective lesser deity winged serpent of fire and light, which guards the pharaoh beginning with Alexander the Great. Two prospective candidates are Shw (Shu), the lower sky Natjr and عpya (Apy), the winged sun disk.
While Shw would follow within the iwnw (Heliopolis) theology, and is followed in the list by His son Gabab عHa’tyw rع (Geb, Ra ‘s Fighter).
However there is also the BaHadat (Edfu) theology, which places Rع Har A’khatya (Ra Horakhty), Rع syncretised with Har of Nakhan (Hierakonpolis), at the head of the paradigm, and his son Har of BaHadat. In the Triumph of Horus Myth, Rع Har A’khatya gives his power to Har BaHadatya, who becomes عpya (Apy), the winged sun disk.
The list continues with A’sir (Osiris) and his sister wife A’sat (Isis). A’sat is Warat Haka’w – great of primeval power of creation, her name being the feminized throne, and A’sir, meaning ‘eye of the throne’. A’sir became pharaoh of the dead after being murdered by his brother Satash (Seth), whom is declared Pharaoh after deposing his brother and sister.
Satash is followed by the inscription Har Natjrw – Horus deities, for 300 years
DjaHwtya (Thoth), Natjr of wisdom and writing is inscribed as the next ruler in the Najrw iswt, for 7,726 years.
Followed by Natjrat Ma’عat (Ma’at), the righteous truth, justice and cosmic balance. Turin Canon gives her a one hundred year reign.
The Natjrw iswt ends with Har sa’ A’sat – Horus, son of Isis.
Manetho, being the Hellenistic era priest , gives us Greco-roman hḗmitheoi (hḗmisus -half, theoi – deity), and Natjrw Sharar (lesser deities)
Manetho begins with
Mars of the Hellenistic era could be summed reasonable into the ancient adage by Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus “Si vis pacem para bellum., (To secure peace, prepare for war). Son of Jupiter and Juno, the Hellenistic Mars is paired with Venus, and given a place of honor at the Lectisternium, the state religion banquet to celebrate the twelve main gods of Rome. Mars and Venus are highly eroticized in popular art, the greatest couple of virility and fertility. This theme extends into his role as agricultural deity.
Inpw (Anubis). This jackal headed deity is well known in popular ancient Egyptian culture. By the Hellenistic era he is the child of A’sir, and carries out the adjustments to the scale weighing the heart against the feather of Ma’عat (Ma’at) for judgment in the afterlife.
Heracles. The Hellenistic period concentrated on an interesting facet of Heracles. Hellenistic art puts focus on a weary and drunken Heracles, having performed his twelvefold laborious penitence of murdering his family; slumped in intoxicated exhaustion, or urinating
Apollo. Hellenistic myths syncretize Apollo with Helios, greek titan of the sun.
Ammon. He is head of the oracular temple in the Siwa Oasis that Alexander the Great sought approval to rule as Pharaoh of ancient Egypt.
Twtw. This Natjr Sharar was worshipped by commoners beginning in the Late Period of Egypt, c. 525 – 332 b.c.e. He is depicted as a striding, winged lion with a tail of a cobra. He has a main head of a man wearing the royal namas (nemes) head cloth and a headdress of two plumes, the sun disk, two cobras with sun disks, and the straight horns of a ram. Smaller heads of falcons and crocodiles protrude from his body, and he tramples the Arrows of Sakhamat; emblematic of disease. Among his titles are Master of the demons of Sakhamat (disease) and the wandering demons of Ba’asatat (Bastet), protectors of the dead. Twtw’s earliest duties were protecting tombs in his iconography, but later his role expanded to guarding the sleeping person as they entered the dream world, which shared a place in the dwa’at – Netherworld where the dead and Natjrw live.
Zosos – This entry is the greatest mystery, as there is no reference but Manetho. Early historians like Herodotus and Syncellus to Egyptologists like Breasted and Wilkinson only repeat the name Zosos but their identity is neither known nor discussed.
Jupiter is the last of the deities given by Manetho. Hellenistic Jupiter comes from the words Zeus-pater or father Zeus, and is basically an adoption of the Zeus mythos. Hellenistic philosophy took Jupiter to be a personification of Logos – logic.
3 Dynasties of Djara’atyw (Ancestors).
30 Rulers in Man Nafar (Memphis) reigning 1,790 years. Man nafar is one of the oldest capitols of the united Two Lands of Egypt, and the location of the par عa’a – the residence of the pharaoh
Shamsw Har – Followers of Horus Dynasty. The first attested ruler of the Shamsw Har is Ra-Har, (mouth/voice of Horus, or companion of Horus) commonly called Iry Hor. The Samsw Har came from Horus cities of Nakhan, and BaHadat,
10 Rulers in Tjaniya (Thinis) reigning 350 years. Tjaniya is attested by Manetho as being the first capital of the pharaonic dynasty under menes. However the actual city has yet to be found, and only an approximate location in the A’badjw (Abydos) nome.